BIM (Building Information Modelling) is a methodology and management system based on the use of a virtual three-dimensional model.
The model is linked to databases that can provide the information deemed necessary to manage the building or infrastructure. BIM represents a technological advance that helps to optimise all processes linked to the life cycle of a building. It also allows for a more coordinated and efficient construction as it brings together all the information and makes it accessible and editable for the agents involved in the process of generating and managing building data.
BIM models are based on the composition of objects that have their own attributes and are in turn connected to other objects. Attributes are a set of information about materials, means, costs or resources. This information is essential for the management of the construction and subsequent maintenance of the building.
The BIM methodology allows for better coordination between architects, engineers, construction companies, facility managers, manufacturers and other agents involved in all phases of the architectural project. From design, construction and fabrication of elements to maintenance once the building is up and running. While AutoCAD software is used to design the elements of the project in 2D or 3D, the BIM methodology integrates other variables such as time, costs or the technical characteristics of the materials used, which makes it possible to coordinate the execution and maintenance processes of the building with much greater precision.
Although BIM methodology is being implemented by leaps and bounds in all studios and companies that design and build architecture, for the moment, in Spain, its obligatory nature is restricted to very specific areas. BIM is compulsory in public works, building and civil works that depend on the Ministry of Public Works.